Das theologische Programm des Jan Hus. Unsere Seite hat nicht im Sinn, das Volk vom wahren Gehorsam abzubringen, sondern, dass es ein Volk sei, einmütig. Der böhmische Reformator Jan Hus, ein Anhänger der Lehren Wyclifs, wurde auf dem Konstanzer Konzil am 6. Juli verurteilt und verbrannt. Jan Hus: Vordenker und Wegbereiter der Reformation. Jan Hus auf dem Konzil zu Konstanz. Bildrechte: © epd-bild / akg-images.
2015: Jan Hus GedenkjahrJan Hus lernte zunächst die Lehren des John Wyclif (geb. bis ) kennen, der ein englischer Philosoph und Kirchenreformer gewesen ist. Wie später Hus. Das theologische Programm des Jan Hus. Unsere Seite hat nicht im Sinn, das Volk vom wahren Gehorsam abzubringen, sondern, dass es ein Volk sei, einmütig. Das Hus-Haus beherbergt seit die Dauerausstellung über Jan Hus. Die Hus-Gedenkstätte trägt aber nicht nur zur Bildung, sondern auch zur.
Jan Hus Navigacijski meni VideoJan Hus 1415-2015 Aufgrund der Kritik der damaligen Kirchenverhältnisse musste Johannes Hus seine Lehre vor dem Konstanzer Konzil verteidigen, wurde jedoch als Ketzer am 6. Staffel 2 predigte er drei Wochen in einer Herberge in der St. Die in seinen Augen sündige Institution Kirche hatte durch Ablasshandel und Unzüchtigkeit ihren Vertretungsanspruch verloren.
Brckner will daraufhin Lilly Jan Hus mehr im Forschungsteam haben. - Er verkörpert die nationalen Sehnsüchte der TschechenHus stammt aus einfachen Verhältnissen.
When Alexander V was elected as a pope, he was persuaded to side with Bohemian Church authorities against Hus and his disciples.
He issued a Papal bull that excommunicated Hus; however, it was not enforced, and Hus continued to preach. Hus then spoke out against Alexander V's successor, Antipope John XXIII , for his selling of indulgences.
Hus' excommunication was then enforced, and he spent the next two years living in exile. When the Council of Constance assembled, Hus was asked to be there and present his views on the dissension within the Church.
When he arrived, he was immediately arrested and put in prison. He was eventually taken in front of the council and asked to recant his views.
He replied, "I would not for a chapel of gold retreat from the truth! When he refused, he was put back in prison.
On 6 July , he was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Catholic Church. He could be heard singing Psalms as he was burning.
After Hus was executed, the followers of his religious teachings known as Hussites refused to elect another Catholic monarch and defeated five consecutive papal crusades between and in what became known as the Hussite Wars.
Both the Bohemian and the Moravian populations remained majority Hussite until the s, when a Protestant defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain resulted in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown coming under Habsburg dominion for the next years and being subject to immediate and forced conversion in an intense campaign of return to Catholicism.
The exact date of Hus' birth is disputed. Some claim he was born around ,  while others claim he was born between and The reason behind him taking his name from his village rather than from his father is up to speculation; some believe that it was because Hus did not know of his father, while others say it was simply a custom at that time.
His father's name was Michael; his mother's name is unknown. It is known that Hus had a brother due to him expressing concerns for his nephew while awaiting execution at Constance.
Whether or not Hus had any other family is unknown. At the age of roughly 10, Hus was sent away to a monastery.
The exact reason is not known; some claim that his father had died,  others say he went there due to his devotion to God. Hus apparently supported himself by securing employment in Prague, which allowed him to fulfill his basic necessities, and access to the Prague Library.
Three years later, he was admitted to the University of Prague. Hus began teaching at the university in and in , he first publicly defended propositions of Wycliffe.
Hus denounced the moral failings of clergy, bishops, and even the papacy from his pulpit. On 24 June , Pope Innocent VII directed the Archbishop to counter Wycliffe's teachings, especially the doctrine of impanation in the Eucharist.
In , two Bohemian students brought to Prague a document bearing the seal of the University of Oxford and praising Wycliffe.
Hus proudly read the document from his pulpit. Hus obeyed, declaring that he condemned the errors in those writings. In , the Charles University in Prague was divided by the Western Schism , in which Gregory XII in Rome and Benedict XIII in Avignon both claimed the papacy.
Wenceslaus felt Gregory XII might interfere with his plans to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor. He denounced Gregory, ordered the clergy in Bohemia to observe a strict neutrality in the schism and said that he expected the same of the university.
At the University, only the scholars of the Bohemian "nation" one of the four governing sections , with Hus as their leader, vowed neutrality. The Czech nation agreed, but the other three nations declined.
The king then decreed that the Czech nation would have three votes in university affairs, while the "German nation" composed of the former Bavarian , Saxon , and Polish nations would have one vote in total.
Due to the change in voting structure by May the German dean and rector were deposed and replaced by Czechs.
The Palatine Elector called the Germans to his own University of Heidelberg, while the Margrave of Meissen started a new university in Leipzig.
It is estimated that over one thousand students and masters left Prague. The emigrants also spread accusations of Bohemian heresy. In , the Council of Pisa tried to end the schism by electing Alexander V as Pope, but Gregory and Benedict did not submit.
Alexander was declared an " antipope " by the Council of Constance in Hus, his followers, and Wenceslaus IV transferred their allegiance to Alexander V.
On 20 December , Alexander V issued a papal bull that empowered the Archbishop to proceed against Wycliffism in Prague.
All copies of Wycliffe's writings were to be surrendered and his doctrines repudiated, and free preaching discontinued.
After the publication of the bull in , Hus appealed to Alexander V, but in vain. The Wycliffe books and valuable manuscripts were burned, and Hus and his adherents were excommunicated by Alexander V.
Alexander V died in , and was succeeded by John XXIII also later declared an antipope. In , John XXIII proclaimed a crusade against King Ladislaus of Naples , the protector of rival Pope Gregory XII.
This crusade was preached in Prague as well. John XXIII also authorized indulgences to raise money for the war. Priests urged the people on and these crowded into churches to give their offerings.
This traffic in indulgences was a sign of the corruption of the Church needing remediation. Hus spoke out against indulgences, but he could not carry with him the men of the university.
In , a dispute took place, on which occasion Hus delivered his address Quaestio magistri Johannis Hus de indulgentiis.
It was taken literally from the last chapter of Wycliffe's book, De ecclesia , and his treatise, De absolutione a pena et culpa.
Hus asserted that no pope or bishop had the right to take up the sword in the name of the Church; he should pray for his enemies and bless those that curse him; man obtains forgiveness of sins by true repentance, not money.
The doctors of the theological faculty replied, but without success. Hus, they said, should be obeyed rather than the Church, which they considered a fraudulent mob of adulterers and Simonists.
In response, three men from the lower classes who openly called the indulgences a fraud were beheaded. They were later considered the first martyrs of the Hussite Church.
In the meantime, the faculty had condemned the forty-five articles and added several other theses, deemed heretical, which had originated with Hus.
The king forbade the teaching of these articles but neither Hus nor the university complied with the ruling. They requested that the articles should be first proven to be un-scriptural.
The tumults at Prague had stirred up a sensation. Papal legates and Archbishop Albik tried to persuade Hus to give up his opposition to the papal bulls and the king made an unsuccessful attempt to reconcile the two parties.
King Wenceslaus IV made efforts to harmonize the opposing parties. The synod was instead held in the palace of the archbishops at Prague in order to exclude Hus from participation.
Propositions were made to restore peace in the Church. Hus declared that Bohemia should have the same freedom in regard to ecclesiastical affairs as other countries and that approbation and condemnation should therefore be announced only with the permission of the state power.
This was the doctrine of Wycliffe Sermones , iii. There followed treatises from both parties, but no harmony was obtained. According to this conception the pope is the head of the Church and the Cardinals are the body of the Church.
Hus protested vigorously. The Kuttenberg Decree of enabled the Czechs to take control of the faculty, forcing the Germans to leave for other universities.
The faculty chose Hus as rector at Prague that same year, signifying his elevation to the head of its reform movement.
The political and ecclesiological basis for their reforms was a Wycliffite view of sovereign territorial churches under the headship of a secular ruler, not the papacy in Rome.
This not unexpectedly caused massive political turmoil and brought a stern reaction from the local archbishop and the Roman curia. Hus continued to defend Wycliffe and to preach from the Bethlehem pulpit, however, and soon appealed to the new pope, John XXIII, regarding the earlier bull of Alexander.
As a result, Hus was excommunicated by his archbishop, thus beginning the ecclesiastical proceedings against him that would end in Constance.
After his local excommunication, Hus was referred to Rome for his Wycliffite teaching and disobedience to ecclesiastical superiors in August He refused to stand trial in Rome and was excommunicated by the Roman court in February Popular support for him in Bohemia only grew as a result, forcing the archbishop of Prague to flee.
Hus soon took on the status of both icon and pariah. The clerical estate owned about one-half of all the land in Bohemia, and the great wealth and simoniacal practices of the higher clergy aroused jealousy and resentment among the poor priests.
The Bohemian peasantry, too, resented the church as one of the heaviest land taxers. There was thus a large potential base of support for any church reform movement at a time when the authority of the papacy itself was discredited by the Western Schism.
From Hus was in charge of the chapel, which had become the centre of the growing national reform movement in Bohemia. He became increasingly absorbed in public preaching and eventually emerged as the popular leader of the movement.
Because the German masters had three votes and the Czech masters only one, the Germans easily outvoted the Czechs, and the 45 articles were henceforth regarded as a test of orthodoxy.
Wycliffe also declared the Scriptures to be the sole source of Christian doctrine. The two men returned completely changed in their theological views and became the principal opponents of the Reformers.
Thus, just when Hus had emerged at the forefront of the reform movement, he came into conflict with his former friends. Since the Roman Catholic Church had been split by the Western Schism, during which the papal jurisdiction was divided between two popes.
The council had the support of the Czech masters at the University of Prague, whereas the German masters were opposed to it. Iz Wikipedije, proste enciklopedije.
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